PEPFAR's annual planning process is done either at the country (COP) or regional level (ROP).
PEPFAR's programs are implemented through implementing partners who apply for funding based on PEPFAR's published Requests for Applications.
Since 2010, PEPFAR COPs have grouped implementing partners according to an organizational type. We have retroactively applied these classifications to earlier years in the database as well.
Also called "Strategic Areas", these are general areas of HIV programming. Each program area has several corresponding budget codes.
Specific areas of HIV programming. Budget Codes are the lowest level of spending data available.
Expenditure Program Areas track general areas of PEPFAR expenditure.
Subdivisions of Program Areas, these track general higher level sub-classifications of expenditure.
Subdivisions of Major categories, these are the most detailed expenditure data.
Cross-cutting attributions are areas of PEPFAR programming that contribute across several program areas. They contain limited indicative information related to aspects such as human resources, health infrastructure, or key populations programming. However, they represent only a small proportion of the total funds that PEPFAR allocates through the COP process. Additionally, they have changed significantly over the years. As such, analysis and interpretation of these data should be approached carefully. Learn more
PEPFAR sets targets using the Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting (MER) System - documentation for which can be found on PEPFAR's website at https://www.pepfar.gov/reports/guidance/. As with most data on this website, the targets here have been extracted from the COP documents. Targets are for the fiscal year following each COP year, such that selecting 2016 will access targets for FY2017. This feature is currently experimental and should be used for exploratory purposes only at present.
Years of mechanism: 2008
TITLE: HIV Prevention among Youth through Abstinence and Risk Avoidance (ARK)
NEED and COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE: The program intends to expand and strengthen HIV prevention
through promotion of positive social norms that reduce youth's risk of becoming HIV positive; primarily
abstinence, faithfulness, and mutual monogamy while creating supportive family and community
environments toward an HIV-free generation of youth. The transformative power of the program lies in
small, self-actualizing groups such as young people, parents, faith-based organizations (FBOs) and
community-based organizations (CBOs). Strategic communication approaches are used to support and
reinforce healthy social norms thus contributing to World Vision's (WV's) transformational development (TD)
philosophy. TD has a unique framework with five areas for desired change: well being of youth, empowered
youth, transformed relationships, interdependent and empowered communities, and transformed systems
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Over 1,703 youth were trained as peer educators and coaches to promote A&B
behaviors reaching 70,620 youth. This number exceeds the annual target by the end of September 2007 by
34,262. Four-hundred and twenty-eight parents and responsible adults were trained to educate other adults
to support youth to make healthy choices. Over 10, 800 people were reached through CGMP (Common
Ground Melting Pot) meetings and theatre by the end of June 2007. The ‘pot' is the meeting and the
ingredients (people and ideas) of the pot are combined so that one agreed upon action plan is created.
ARK trained 154 schoolteachers who established over 100 school health clubs. Teachers conducted
orientation to staff to support intra and inter-schools activities such as debates, drama, music festivals, and
essay writing completions. Two-hundred and thirty-nine FBOs were trained to disseminate ARK messages
among their congregations through weekly sermons, youth camps, and other church activities.
Strengthened radio discussion programs through three radio stations, namely; Radio Maria, Radio Abood,
and Orkonerei Radio. Forty-two listener groups were established, and the discussions have enabled 1,260
young people and parents to initiate discussions about sex issues and HIV prevention.
ACTIVITIES: 1) Strengthen youth capacity to practice A&/or B behaviors in order to prevent HIV
transmission. Fifteen new youth advisory groups (YAGs) at ward levels and 140 youth action groups (yags)
at village/sub-village levels will be established, while approximately 60 existing YAGs and 290 new YAGs
will be strengthened. 1a) Train youth in interpersonal communication, life skills and transformational
development, and provide support to develop and roll-out personal and group development plans. 1b)
Outreach to out-of-school youth through the YAGs, theatre and radio listener group activities will be
established to support the various youth action groups to reach approximately 131,000 youth. Youth will
continue to be encouraged to go for VCT in addition to holding joint VCT sessions with MOH during farmers'
2) Increase capacity of families, CBOs and FBOs to support abstinence and faithfulness among youth.
Fifteen new Parent Advisory Groups (PAG) and 30 parent action groups (PAGs) will be established, 25
existing PAGs will be strengthened, and five existing government district advisory committees (DACs) will
be strengthened through quarterly feedback and action-planning sessions. Through these groups,
approximately 47,100 parents and responsible adults will be oriented to the program and trained on HIV
prevention, communicating sexuality and transformational development, as well as the development and roll
out of action plans. Fifty community leaders and 200 church leaders will be trained on ARK branded life skill
manuals. The leaders will facilitate 180 youth-adult dialogue and 20 CGMP meetings to promote
communication between youth and adults and adoption of the A&B behaviors. Build capacity of all
individuals involved in the program to disseminate accurate messages and provide effective coaching and
mentoring for youth and responsible adults, and promote the adoption of the A&B behaviors. Using the
cascade approach to training, the district level trainers will conduct downstream training for 150 district
facilitators, who will train/orient a further 2,220 action group members and volunteers (coaches and peer
educators). Ten thousand ARK Passports for youth and 1,000 ARK facilitation guides for youth (10-14 and
15-24) and adults will be re-printed. ARK passports are extending tools given to each youth after completing
the training; a personal booklet to reinforce the learning and also a self-monitoring and goal-setting tool. To
expand the on-going dialogue about HIV prevention and the broader issues of sexuality, the ARK program
team will expand radio programming to reach four districts from the current three districts. Two additional
radio stations will be identified to broadcast programs targeting communities in Karagwe and Hai districts,
while activities with the existing three will be strengthened. Eight radio spots will be produced and
approximately 260 discussion programs will be broadcast throughout the year while 80 listener groups will
be established and 40 radio presenters will be trained. These activities are provided by JHUCCP as sub
recipients and are coordinated closely with other USG radio programming partners such as STRADCOM
3) Create enabling environment for A&/or B behaviors. Fifty government officials will be sensitized at
various levels (district, division, ward and village) to generate their involvement in planning and
implementation of the ARK interventions within their areas of jurisdiction. Given the increasing demand by
neighboring communities outside of ADPs, ARK in collaboration with MOH/MOE will expand to adjacent
communities in at least two districts.
LINKAGES: Abstinence and Risk Avoidance program (ARK) has a very strong and well defined link with all
WV Area Development Programs (ADP), existing community groups such as drama groups and Community
Care Coalitions (CCCs) working with OVC at the community level. The program also works with churches
and mosques (FBOs), CBOs, and other HIV/AIDS programs at community and district level. ARK works
with United African American Community Centre (UAACC), Huduma Integrated Medical Services (HIMS),
Centre for Education Development in Health Arusha (CEDHA) and Family Health International (FHI) and
FEMINA at national level and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication
Programs (JHU/CCP) at the international level. ARK also coordinates closely with other USG AB and OP
partners to ensure that radio programming is not duplicative.
CHECK BOXES: Abstinence and Risk Avoidance program (ARK) put emphasis on expanding and
strengthening HIV prevention through promotion of positive social norms that reduces 10-24 youth's risk of
becoming infected with HIV through primary and secondary abstinence, faithfulness and mutual monogamy
while creating supportive family and community environments toward a preferred future context. This will be
achieved by building youth capacity to practice A&B behaviors through trainings and outreaches, increase
capacity of families, CBOs and FBOs to support abstinence and faithfulness among youth.
M&E: ARK uses the Observing U Check How (OUCH); a quality improvement checklist to assess the quality
Activity Narrative: of the delivery of training/facilitation. The tool also is used as a job aid to self-assess the trainers/facilitators
own performance. The ARK team plans to make one visit to every district per month to insure quality,
provide outreaches, observe ongoing education, validate reports, affirm trainees, provide immediate
feedback to current and planned activities, and as needed, also to impart new knowledge and skills.
SUSTAINABILITY: ARK has been designed with sustainability-promoting activities at the outset. Apart from
its focus on sustained, positive behavior change at individual, group, family, and community levels, ARK has
capitalized on WV's long-term Area Development Programs. As lead agency, WV has been contributing
matching funds for activities such as midterm review to determine individual and group motivation for
behavior change and training in grant compliance. Through WV's ADP managed by community committees,
more trainings are conducted to build capacity of community based organizations including FBOs to take
over the program. This strong platform of implementation is well utilized by ARK program through its
technical assistance from the Johns Hopkins University which has developed training materials and
communication methodologies that will continue to be used by World Vision and ARK collaborators such as
HIMS, UAACC, FBOs, CBOs, School Health clubs and other community based leaders.