Detailed Mechanism Funding and Narrative

Years of mechanism: 2008 2009

Details for Mechanism ID: 8295
Country/Region: Nigeria
Year: 2008
Main Partner: Chemonics International
Main Partner Program: NA
Organizational Type: Private Contractor
Funding Agency: USAID
Total Funding: $3,517,881

Funding for Care: Orphans and Vulnerable Children (HKID): $3,517,881


This is a new activity which relates to other activities in the USG OVC portfolio. As part of a renewed effort

to improve comprehensive services offered to orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Nigeria, the USG is

procuring services for a new wrap-around nutrition project and food-related income generation activity

(IGA). Family Nutritional Support Program (FNSP) will target the immediate nutritional needs of the most

vulnerable children being supported by USG IPs throughout Nigeria and address the long-term livelihood

support needs of OVC and their caregivers in four states (Bauchi, Kano, Lagos and Cross River).

The Food Consumption and Nutrition Survey (FCNS) conducted by the International Institute of Tropical

Agriculture (IITA), which looked at the nutritional status of women and children under 5 in rural and urban

populations across Nigeria, showed a steep increase in the incidence of wasting between 6 and 12 months,

which corresponds with an end to exclusive breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary foods for

some children. Across the agro-ecological zones, 42% of children surveyed were stunted and 25% were

underweight, with the largest proportions in the dry savanna. The onset of the three forms of malnutrition

(stunting, wasting, and underweight) appears to occur most often between 6 and 24 months of age.

Malnutrition causes reduced resistance to infectious diseases, diminished learning capacity, and ultimately

leads to low productivity, incomes and national development

The PEPFAR Report on Food and Nutrition for People Living with HIV/AIDS (2006) notes that many parts of

the world most severely affected by HIV have long been plagued by systemic and chronic food insecurity,

and that there is a complex interrelationship between AIDS and food insecurity. Within this context, children

orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS are more likely to experience compromised nutrition with

resulting negative impact on health. The (FNSP) will provide access to nutritional support services to all

OVC who are in need as identified by the Child Status Index with a particular focus on under-fives.

FNSP has two components. The objective of the first component, which addresses immediate nutritional

needs, is to formulate, produce and distribute fortified, nutritious, locally available dietary supplements as

ready-to-prepare packaged products to OVCs and their caregivers through PEPFAR IPs. Some examples

of potential products are: cowpea flour with good shelf life and robust packaging; ready-to-cook, balanced

porridge for morning meals; and nutritious, ready-to-eat energy bars, packaged to distribute or sell. The

project will engage the services of a nutritionist with experience in food supplementation and fortification

using locally available foods to develop different formulations based on CDC and WHO nutritional

recommendations. In order to ensure sustainability and acceptability of the supplement used in the FNSP

activity locally available grains and legumes (e.g. cowpea and millet) will be used to formulate the nutritional


Once the products have been developed and tested, they will then be produced, packaged and branded in

collaboration with selected processors in Kano and Lagos that are already partnering with MARKETS under

other USAID funded projects. Packaging would contain essential nutritional content and preparation

instructions, as well as expiration date. Shelf life will be at least 6 months. Marketing such products will be

done under NAFDAC registration which will ensure quality standards which are in compliance with WHO

and CDC specifications for nutritional supplements.

The project will mobilize existing cowpea/sorghum out-growers networks in Kano to produce the required

high protein cowpea varieties. Where possible, rural based OVC households will be networked into the

IITA/Gatsby crop-livestock project in Kano state to take advantage of the extra early varieties of cowpea to

double their production and earn more income.

The prepackaged nutritional supplement will be distributed to the OVC families by PEPFAR IPs


AID, CCN and AIM Projects, etc. and the US DOD), based on an average of 150 grams of supplement per

recipient per day. The exact amount of supplement per day will be determined by the weight of the child

and the nutritional recommendations for the particular supplement being distributed. This activity will target

approximately 22,500 OVC recipients whom are considered to be the "most vulnerable" as determined by

the frequency or number of days in which the OVC household does not have adequate food to provide

meals. Using available data, it is estimated that these most vulnerable OVC will represent 15% of the total

OVC targets in Nigeria, or about 22,500 children. Based on an average of 150g/day, each recipient will

receive 54.8 kg per year in weekly rations. The total need for these most vulnerable OVCs then is

1,231,875 kg of nutritional supplement per year. The fortified and packaged nutritional supplement will cost

approximately 250 naira per kilo, with the total cost of this first objective estimated to be approximately

$2,463,750 dollars.

The objective of the second component, Household Nutrition and Income, will address the longer term

household nutrition and income generation needs of 7500 OVC households through a program to promote

home gardening. Home gardens have several direct benefits: they 1) provide access to a diversity of

nutritionally-rich foods; 2) increase purchasing power from savings on food bills and income from sales of

garden products; and 3) provide fall-back food provision during seasonal lean periods. Three activities are

proposed under the second component.

1. Establishment of demonstration sites: The main purpose will be to demonstrate improved home

gardening techniques which will diversify the dietary intake of OVCs and their caregivers. Demonstrations

will be conducted in central locations on best horticultural practices including use of improved seeds and

seedlings, affordable irrigation equipment, agronomic practices, integrated pest management etc. The

demonstrations will be managed by extension agents that will be engaged by the project on a sub-contract


2. Training through Farmer Field Schools: The project will use a Farmer Field School approach which is a

community-based, practically-oriented, extension field strategy, that is usually time-bound (generally one

agricultural production cycle), involving a group of about 25-30 farmers, facilitated by an extension agent.

These activities will target already existing OVC support groups and will integrate agricultural production

into the wider package of services provided for OVC and their caretakers.

3. Development of training brochures, manuals and pamphlets: The project intends to develop brochures in

the local languages on nutrition and home-based preparation of foods in rural areas. Additionally, training

Activity Narrative: manuals will be developed on best horticultural practices to be handed to trainees in other settings.

To further enrich the IGA capacity of this component, the project will identify OVC families which have the

capability to produce ingredients that are used in the packaged supplements to bolster family livelihood and

income. OVC caregivers can also be involved as retailers in marketing the supplements thereby generating

income to support the household. In urban settings, OVC care providers will be engaged in informal

distribution networks (on bicycle or motorcycle), being paid a small margin depending on the number outlets

served. Such an approach would create a new niche market for the processors, which could be expanded

on a nation-wide basis in following years. Developing this activity on a commercial basis will provide a

sustainable platform to continue the effort even in the absence of PEPFAR resources. Developing a highly

nutritious, easily prepared quality food supplement could provide a nutritional safety net for a wide range of

vulnerable social groups, including those with HIV/AIDS.


This activity contributes to the USG's PEPFAR 5 year strategy of providing care to 400,000 OVC and is

consistent with the Nigerian National Plan of Action on OVC.


This activity leverages existing USAID funded Economic Growth programs to provide wrap-around

nutritional and income generating support for OVC identified in PEPFAR programs. FNSP will provide food

commodities to PEPFAR IPs to distribute to the most vulnerable OVC, and will liaise closely with these IPs

to identify OVC support groups that can benefit from the home gardening and IGA activities.


OVC and OVC caregivers are the direct targets, while the communities and support groups will indirectly



This activity has a major focus on Wrap-Arounds that will primarily provide nutrition and IGA support for

OVC. Local organization capacity development is another major emphasis area. Community mobilization

and participation, development of network/linkages/referral system, and information, education and

communication will also be addressed.

Cross Cutting Budget Categories and Known Amounts Total: $2,463,750
Food and Nutrition: Commodities $2,463,750