Detailed Mechanism Funding and Narrative

Details for Mechanism ID: 12121
Country/Region: Malawi
Year: 2010
Main Partner: Not Available
Main Partner Program: NA
Organizational Type: NGO
Funding Agency: USAID
Total Funding: $0

The HIV/AIDS pandemic has dramatically affected the development of the education sector. It is believed that HIV has contributed to increased teachers' absenteeism and mortality. With 60% of the workforce under the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST), this translates into high numbers of educational staff infected or affected by HIV. Despite increasing availability of HIV/AIDS services in Malawi, anecdotal evidence suggests that teachers remain reluctant to learn and take action on their serostatus, perpetuating AIDS-related morbidity and mortality among their ranks.

Furthermore, there is evidence that schools can be places of increased risky sexual behavior among teachers and between teachers and pupils. Gender based violence, intergenerational sex and sexual abuse have been cited as critical issues to be addressed that further undermine the role of schools and

positive learning. Effectively mitigating the needs is pivotal for a sustained reduction of HIV incidence among teachers and students (NESP, 2008).

Teachers are one of the primary means to reach children with key knowledge and skills around HIV prevention. And yet, teachers themselves are at great risk for both becoming infected, and infecting others with HIV (Action Aid, 2006). While the new primary curriculum formally integrates Life Skills Education, anecdotal evidence suggests few teachers are comfortable teaching it and because it is not tested, there is little motivation to address teacher weakness in effectively teaching it. Many teachers express low comfort around their own sexuality and ability to discuss these issues openly. With the demands of trying to implement a newly introduced curriculum within large classrooms (as many as 200 in the lower Standards), the teaching of necessary life skills education is not clearly understood and may not be taught in ways that equip pupils with or enhance needed skills.

Nonetheless, examples of positive action exist. Through the efforts of different development partner supported activities, district education managers and more than 7,600 teachers have been trained in HIV/AIDS prevention. The GoM has formed a national organization called T'LIPO (Teachers Living Positively), with a membership of more than 2,500 teachers. Five T'LIPO networks have also started work on home-based care through USAID Education funding. Trainers have been trained in most of the districts and in some districts have conducted district wide training sessions.

Teachers' potential as change agents has been exemplified by positive deviant teachers - particularly women - who have established PLWHA support groups. Some support group participants disclosed their HIV status in public, provided support to other teachers, visited schools to reduce the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, and encouraged others to be tested and access treatment. However, challenges still remain. Male teachers living with HIV and AIDS are less willing to disclose, organize and advocate for change and need to be targeted for greater involvement. Networks and linkages to HIV related services need to be strengthened. There is also persistent stigma and discrimination at the school and community level.

The Malawi Teacher Professional Development Support (MTPDS) activity, drawing on its partnerships with T'LIPO, the Bridge II Project and other organizations addressing HIV, is well positioned to help address teacher adult prevention through its broader teacher development program.

The Malawi Teacher Professional Support activity provides technical assistance and support to MOEST in implementing teacher education support and systems management, with an emphasis on completing and reinforcing its introduction of the Primary Curriculum and Assessment Reform (PCAR). Targeting teachers, school administrators, young people and children nationwide, this Teacher Professional

Development Support activity will support linkages and complement key MOEST and GOM priority initiatives and plans in teacher education and professional development, including the HIV/AIDS and Education Strategy and Plan. Relevant components of the effort will focus on: • strengthening teacher management and support systems, • enhancing teacher performance, and • improving primary education-related monitoring and evaluation systems and quality.

On the ground, HIV/AIDS-related and policy-level efforts will target schools and education personnel at all levels of the education system, primarily through revision of the national curriculum for teacher training, adaptation of key content to include gender and HIV related themes and provision of education tools, and finally, through its integration into national pre-service and in-service teacher training, teacher support and mentoring activities.

An MTPDS activity HIV focal person will facilitate the development and inclusion of gender and HIV content responsive to the needs and realities of teachers in collaboration with partners like BRIDGE II who can offer technical expertise. Using transformative tools, BRIDGE II can help enhance training and mentoring of teachers and provide technical assistance to efforts reviewing and integrating HIV/AIDS prevention into the pre and in service teacher curriculum. This can include, for example, supporting new materials development to incorporate powerful stories of real teachers and pupils who have challenged social and gender norms, experienced intergenerational sex relationships, gender based violence, and positive prevention, among other key themes. Their community presence within 11 Southern region districts will provide MTPDS activity with a testing area for new ideas for curriculum adaptation and training, as well as explore ways to strengthen links between schools, communities to address key issues affecting teachers, children, as well as wider services available.

With T'LIPO groups in all 34 education districts, the potential for their reach to other teachers is high. They provide MTPDS activity with expertise as both teachers and as individuals affected by HIV. Their involvement will be invaluable to supporting meaningful curriculum development for life skills for teachers and pupils, and can further strengthen responsive teacher training through possible utilization of their networks as part of training team. The existence of networks within all districts will also support new teachers living with HIV to access psychosocial support and health related services.

MTPDS activity will include a research component to further investigate the effects and impact of HIV and AIDS on education personnel, teachers, students and pupils. This will include knowledge, behaviors and attitudes of these groups and explore issues leading to teacher absenteeism and attrition with respect to teacher management. MTPDS partners will also contribute to the development of the research by providing technical input.

Goals and Objectives The MTPDS activity, with the technical support of Malawi Bridge Project II and other key HIV communication partners, will facilitate integration of effective gender and HIV content into the national teacher training program. The overall goal is to contribute toward reducing new HIV infections among Malawian teachers. MTPDS activity efforts will: • Strengthen teachers' HIV and AIDS knowledge, skills and positive attitudes towards prevention. • Reinforce HIV/AIDS Life Skills education (LSE) curriculum development for teachers (TTCs) • Build capacity of T'LIPO for advocacy, peer mentoring and teacher training support • Improve education sector specific information on the impact of HIV and AIDS among teachers and pupils to inform and test efficacy of education based interventions.

Expected Outcomes • Improved teacher knowledge of HIV and AIDS prevention information and resources • Increased teacher access to prevention, treatment, care and support services • Increase teacher awareness of and access to HIV and AIDS care and treatment options and services • Established self-efficacy of teachers as adults at risk • Improved teacher support networks (e.g. through T'LIPO)

Linkages with Partnership Framework The National Action Framework and the HIV Prevention Strategy has prioritized reduction of adult infection. With PEPFAR Funds, MTPDS will focus its contribution to that support on the NAF objective to "Reduce the sexual transmission of HIV", emphasizing interventions that address sexual prevention among teachers, human capacity development and gender as a cross cutting issue. MBTDS will also contribute towards strengthening linkages and referral to other HIV and AIDS services by integrating key messages into curriculum content and training activities.

Geographic coverage and target population MTPDS targets its efforts at the national level, through its collaboration with the Ministry of Education, to reach a minimum of 10% of Teacher Training College lecturers and student teachers, in-service teachers, and primary education advisors (PEAs) during the first year. In the second year, 40% of lecturers and student teachers will be reached and 30% of teachers, PEAs and Head teachers through the proposed interventions.

Contribution toward cross cutting, gender and key issues

Human Resources for Health and Education: MTPDS will contribute toward building the capacity of teachers through integration of responsive training program content on interpersonal communication to explore personal risk practices, damaging gender norms and develop self-efficacy to protect their health, Indirectly, the skills they will learn will support their role as teachers to deliver LSE for pupils effectively. Gender: MTPDS will influence gender relations and decrease women's vulnerability to HIV by directly addressing gender in training content and interventions. Support to workplace interventions: MTPDS will collaborate closely with the Ministry of Education to integrate effective educational training, and links to HIV related services for teachers and other educational personnel. Building Behavior Change Communication (BCC) Skills: Through proposed pre-service and in-service training planned, MTPDS will strengthen the BCC skills of teachers reached for their own health but indirectly, will improve LSE for pupils. Efforts will be sustained through integration of key content within the national teacher training curriculums for both primary and secondary levels. With the support of partners like Bridge II, capacity of trainers for training HIV related content will also be enhanced through sharing of effective communication methodologies and tools, and strategizing on meaningful integration into training activities, possible links with T'LIPO trainers in training delivery, and feedback through testing of ideas, related interventions with teachers in select districts.

Cost Effectiveness MTPDS will work directly with the Ministry of Education's teacher development system to ensure that efforts made will be feasible and are integrated into existing reform, training and materials development activities planned.

Budget Summary PFIP Year 1 Funding - Redacted PFIP Year 2 Funding - Redacted

Funding for Health Systems Strengthening (OHSS): $0

I. Budget Code: OHSS

PFIP Year 1 Funding - Redacted PFIP Year 2 Funding - Redacted


With PFIP Year 1 funding, MTPDS expects to implement the following activities:

Activity 1: Teacher focused Pre- and In-Service Curriculum HIV/AIDS review and integration Through collaboration between the Education-led MTPDS activity and BRIDGE II, HIV and AIDS tools and materials will be shared and reviewed as part of review of Pre-service Teacher Training College Curriculum and the Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Modules for In-service teachers. The emphasis will be on supporting the MoEST and the Teacher Training Colleges (TTCs) to improve HIV/AIDS content and resources. A review of teacher-oriented curriculum will also assess other existing efforts with the intent to inform or improve pre-service and in-service teacher training. An outcome of the review will be the identification of appropriate BRIDGE II tools and materials that can be adapted and, as agreed with MoEST, can strengthen the curriculum or be incorporated as part of curriculum revision efforts. 50% of a MTPDS staff person's time will be devoted to facilitation of the review and materials adaptation.

Activity 2: Pre-Service Education Personnel Training The MTPDS will provide technical assistance to the Department of Teacher Education and the TTCs to ensure lecturers at the six TTCs and a core group of Field Supervisors are oriented and trained in the revised materials for both the Initial Primary Teacher Education (IPTE) and Open and Distance Learning (ODL) programs, with technical input from BRIDGE II and T'LIPO. Efforts will be made to include HIV/AIDS teacher training as part IPTE and ODL student teacher training efforts under the MTPDS, where possible and optimal, to include or in collaboration with other organizations that may provide

similar training. Resource and other materials development for use at the trainings are included under this activity.

Activity 3: In-Service Education Personnel Training An integral part of the mandate of the MTPDS partner is to operationalize and institutionalize the MoEST approved Continuous Professional Development (CPD) system of cluster training. MTPDS will incorporate HIV/AIDS training into CPD/in-service teacher training efforts through the use of the 6 Divisional hubs and/or the 352 Teacher Development Centers located at the zonal level. This intervention targets all of the approximately 35,000 teachers and additional District, zonal and school level personnel (e.g. Primary Education Advisors, Head-teachers, etc.) MTPDS will ensure a collaborative effort that tries to maximize any HIV/AIDS technical input available through BRIDGE II, as well as other organizations working in this area. Resource and other materials development for use at the trainings, as resources for an HIV/AIDS focal person are included under this activity.

Activity 4: Networking and Capacity Development Support to T'LIPO (under BRIDGE II partner activity) Links will be promoted and fostered between T'LIPO, BRIDGE II, PACT, MTPDS and other education partners to strengthen the resource availability for and capacity of T'LIPO to more competently carry out its role of providing teacher psychosocial, mentoring and related support to positive teachers and students, as well as organizing activities that improve awareness of prevention information and strategies to teachers and other education personnel. Within this, a strategy can be developed to harness T'LIPO resources to adapt and include more teacher oriented stories within BRIDGE existing toolkits for pre- and in-service training delivery based on T'LIPO experience. An area of exploration is how T'LIPO at district level can further support teacher mentoring processes and perhaps use teacher meeting venues for training (e.g. Teacher Development Centers and cluster groupings) to strengthen teacher coping and peer to peer mechanisms and issues around HIV/AIDS life skills education. Targets at the end of a three-year period will be coverage of all T'LIPO members in all 34 Districts, with an initial focus on the six Districts covered by BRIDGE II.

Activity 5: Education sector HIV and AIDS KAP Study Information on the negative impact of HIV/AIDS on primary and secondary education is available from two studies conducted by UNESCO in 2001 and 2004 respectively, but sampling limitations reduce the utility of these studies, which now are also outdated. Data from a recent HIV/AIDS needs assessment are limited to teacher trainees in the TTCs. As a result, significant gaps exist in the MoEST understanding of the ways in which HIV/AIDS is challenging the education system. Under the MTPDS, EMIS and TEMIS data, and any other data collection or information gathering conducted will be reviewed to will help determine what data already exist that can contribute to an assessment of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the teaching force and other MoEST staff. A KAP study focusing on the education sector

and HIV and AIDS will help address gaps in the existing knowledge concerning the impact of HIV/AIDS on the sector, especially through the planned interventions under the MTPDS (and other means) and the likely ways to mitigate those impacts while helping slow the spread of the disease.

Subpartners Total: $0
Johns Hopkins University: NA
Ministry of Education and Sports, Guidance, and Counseling Department - Uganda: NA
Teachers Living Positively: NA
Cross Cutting Budget Categories and Known Amounts Total: $0
Human Resources for Health $0
Key Issues Identified in Mechanism
Child Survival Activities