PEPFAR's annual planning process is done either at the country (COP) or regional level (ROP).
PEPFAR's programs are implemented through implementing partners who apply for funding based on PEPFAR's published Requests for Applications.
Since 2010, PEPFAR COPs have grouped implementing partners according to an organizational type. We have retroactively applied these classifications to earlier years in the database as well.
Also called "Strategic Areas", these are general areas of HIV programming. Each program area has several corresponding budget codes.
Specific areas of HIV programming. Budget Codes are the lowest level of spending data available.
Expenditure Program Areas track general areas of PEPFAR expenditure.
Expenditure Sub-Program Areas track more specific PEPFAR expenditures.
Object classes provide highly specific ways that implementing partners are spending PEPFAR funds on programming.
Cross-cutting attributions are areas of PEPFAR programming that contribute across several program areas. They contain limited indicative information related to aspects such as human resources, health infrastructure, or key populations programming. However, they represent only a small proportion of the total funds that PEPFAR allocates through the COP process. Additionally, they have changed significantly over the years. As such, analysis and interpretation of these data should be approached carefully. Learn more
Beneficiary Expenditure data identify how PEPFAR programming is targeted at reaching different populations.
Sub-Beneficiary Expenditure data highlight more specific populations targeted for HIV prevention and treatment interventions.
PEPFAR sets targets using the Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting (MER) System - documentation for which can be found on PEPFAR's website at https://www.pepfar.gov/reports/guidance/. As with most data on this website, the targets here have been extracted from the COP documents. Targets are for the fiscal year following each COP year, such that selecting 2016 will access targets for FY2017. This feature is currently experimental and should be used for exploratory purposes only at present.
1. LIST OF RELATED ACTIVITIES This activity relates to activities in OP (#8880), CT (#6829) and Palliative Care: Basic Health Care and Support (#6827).
2. ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION Capable Partners is a project of AED that acts as an umbrella organization in Kenya. One of their grantees is Handicap International (HI) who will be sub-granting to a consortium of organizations working with disabled Kenyans to promote access to HIV/AIDS information. As in most developing countries, the situation of disabled persons in Kenya is alarming. Many live a life of discrimination, negative attitudes and exclusion from the mainstream community activities, with no access to information and other basic necessities to live a comfortable life. Running parallel to this, there is ignorance of the sexuality of the disabled; quite often it is assumed that disabled people are incapable of having sex or sexual relationships. In all cases, the abuse and marginalization they suffer combined with the inaccessibility to information and resources, predisposes them to HIV/AIDS. Compounding the problem of vulnerability to HIV exposure is the challenge of communicating messages about HIV/AIDS. Low literacy rates among disabled individuals as well as disadvantages in accessing radio and/or television messages for the deaf and the blind present real challenges to prevention efforts.
Through eight organizations working specifically with people with disabilities, the program will reduce their risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS by promoting accessibility of HIV/AIDS information and education, developing appropriate communication materials for the various types of disabilities (the project therefore aims to translate existing HIV/AIDS information, including information, education and communication materials produced by National AIDS and STI Control Program into formats such as Braille, large print, sign language etc.); and promoting behavior change among youth with disabilities.
The project will train 50 individuals to promote prevention behaviors. Peer educators (disabled youth themselves) will be trained in HIV/AIDS issues. The peer educators will be expected to assist others to build self-esteem by enabling disabled people to understand their rights and measures to protect themselves from abuse or unsafe sex and other risky behaviors that could predispose them to HIV/AIDS. On visiting a VCT centre, a disabled person should have equal access to testing and advice. This means they should be able to fully communicate their concerns as well as understand the advice and support given. This will be made possible by training VCT counselors on the needs of persons with disabilities and training a deaf person in counseling to be able to provide VCT services to the deaf. The project also aims to develop awareness among family members and the community that they have a duty to protect disabled people from sexual exploitation and to ensure perpetrators face legal action.
This activity also includes support to the following sub recipients for activities integral to the program: United Disabled Persons of Kenya Blind $40,000. Low Vision Network $40,000. Dandora Deaf Self-Help Group $40,000. Kenya Disability Action Network $40,000. Kenyan Sign Language Research Project $40,000. Kenya Society for the Mentally Handicapped $40,000. Nairobi Family Support Services $40,000. Disabled Group of Trans Nzoia $40,000.
3. CONTRIBUTIONS TO OVERALL PROGRAM AREA This activity will contribute to the 2007 targets by implementing a community outreach program that will reach 5,000 young people, as well as launching one mass media program that promotes AB and reaches 50,000 individuals.
4. LINKS TO OTHER ACTIVITIES This activity is linked to the AED/Capable Partners/ Handicap International activities in OP (#8880), CT (#6829), and HBHC (#6827). These activities will strengthen those described in this narrative by providing additional support in material design, outreach, VCT and IEC activities.
5. POPULATIONS BEING TARGETED The project expects to target a variety of populations with different interventions, particularly disabled youth.
6. KEY LEGISLATIVE ISSUES ADDRESSED The key legislative issue addressed will be stigma and discrimination through the mainstreaming of disability into HIV/AIDS policy papers in the country. At the moment, little is being done to provide access to this category of people to services on HIV/AIDS, reproductive health and sexuality. Gender will also be addressed due to a rise in gender-based violence of which almost 90% are sexual in nature. Service providers will be on the look-out for victims of such violence and appropriate services will be offered to them promptly to avoid complications that may arise. In all project activities, equity will also be a key focus. Female youth and disabled women in general will be provided with more access to services. The aim of this will be to provide ‘more at risk' segments of the population with adequate information for prevention purpose and also care and support as access may have been compromised because of their condition.
7. EMPHASIS AREAS The major area of emphasis is training. The project will train 50 individuals to promote prevention behaviors. Peer educators (disabled youth themselves) will be trained in HIV/AIDS issues. VCT counselors will be trained on the needs of persons with disabilities and training a deaf person in counseling to be able to provide VCT services to the deaf. A minor emphasis on community mobilization/participation and policy and guidelines through the development of awareness among family members and the community that they have a duty to protect disabled people from sexual exploitation and to ensure perpetrators face legal action.
1. LIST OF RELATED ACTIVITIES One or more of the activities under this umbrella mechanism relate to the alcohol abuse targeted evaluations in Condoms and Other Prevention (#9052), Palliative Care: Basic Health Care and Support at the Coast Provincial General Hospital with APHIA II Coast (#8954) and Kenyatta National Hospital with APHIA II Central (#8936).
2. ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION Substance use is acknowledged as a major factor contributing to the spread of HIV. There are two main possible associations. First, individuals using drugs and alcohol may lose inhibition, leading them to indulge in risky sexual behavior that exposes them to HIV/AIDS infection. Second, injection drug users (IDUs) expose themselves to HIV/AIDS through direct blood-to-blood transmission. Comprehensive HIV/AIDS-prevention programs may help drug and alcohol users to stop using drugs and alcohol, change their behavior and reduce their risks of acquiring or transmitting HIV/AIDS. In Kenya, there is a growing body of evidence that supports the need to address issues related to drug and alcohol use and HIV prevention. Recent studies have shown that there is increasing use of illicit drugs, including heroin, marijuana, and khat, and according to research by the Kenya Medical Research Institute, alcohol now affects 70 percent of Kenyan families. Despite this, access to substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention services remains limited. Through the Capable Partners Program (CAP) this activity will strengthen the organizational and technical capacities of Kenyan organizations implementing programs that prevent the spread of HIV among drug and alcohol users. CAP will continue to provide funding and intensive technical assistance to up to ten organizations who will be implementing programs that decrease specific behaviors associated with drug and alcohol use. Organizations that focus on the following types of interventions will be targeted: 1) outpatient treatment services; 2) transitional services between treatment and the community; 3) prevention/risk reduction services, and; 4) skills-based addictions training for existing and new addictions counselors in both out-patient and in-patient addiction-treatment facilities.
Related partners include the following: Reachout Center Trust, Omari, Asumbi, Redhill Place, the Students Campaign Against Drugs, Muslim Education and Welfare Association, Mombasa Youth Counseling Center, TeenTalk, New Life Center, East Africa Regional Youth Network, Metanoia, DARN Counseling Center, St John Eastern Deanery, Kisumu Urban Apostolate Program and Africa Jesuit AIDS Network. SAPTA (Support for Addiction Preventions and Treatment for Africa) will be funded to implement training programs in collaboration with the Twinning Against AIDS Program.
3. CONTRIBUTIONS TO OVERALL PROGRAM AREA The U.S. Five-Year Global HIV/AIDS Strategy of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief notes that some of the populations most affected by HIV/AIDS, such as injection drug users, are the most difficult to reach through conventional health care programs. By strengthening the organizational and technical capacities of Kenyan NGOs providing HIV/AIDS prevention services to alcohol and drug users, awareness of the link between HIV and alcohol and drug use will increase. 26,000 individuals using drugs and alcohol will be reached with community services that promote HIV/AIDS prevention. Up to 250 individuals will be trained to provide addictions counseling and HIV prevention.
4. LINKS TO OTHER ACTIVITIES The activity will link with BHCS activity and palliative care services activity provided at Coast Provincial General Hospital and other facilities in Mombasa (#8954), and to services at Kenyatta National Hospital (supported by University of Nairobi) in Nairobi (#8936) for treatment of substance-abusers. It will also link up with the Population Council Horizons Targeted Evaluation in Condoms and Other Prevention (#9052) on substance-abusing urban youth.
5. POPULATIONS BEING TARGETED The primary target population for this project is young adults, especially alcohol and drug users. Additional target populations include commercial sex workers, youth, including glue-sniffing street children, outreach workers, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) counselors and the non-governmental/community-based organizations (NGO/CBOs) implementing project activities.
6. KEY LEGISLATIVE ISSUES ADDRESSED During the course of these interventions, the focus will be on prevention of alcohol abuse and drug use and treatment for those who are addicted. As with any prevention materials, stigma and discrimination will be addressed as well as gender inequities. Volunteers will also be involved in the program, particularly those who are former substance-abusers.
7. EMPHASIS AREAS The major emphasis area of this activity is the development of networks linkages, and referral systems between outreach workers, NGOs, and health care providers. Other emphasis areas include information, education, and communication, local organization capacity development, and community mobilization/participation.
"Capable Partners will expand existing activities with the disabled with $100,000 of plus funds. A predisposing factor to HIV risk among people with disabilities is lack of awareness on the dangers of risky sexual behavior. This is compounded by a general lack of awareness of the needs of disabled people among service providers and other stakeholders. Groups such as the Dandora Self Help Group has developed a model program to reduce stigma, enhance knowledge, promote attitude and behavior change and accessibility to HIV/AIDS services for deaf persons. In 2007, the project will scale up this model to other settlements in Nairobi and possibly to other urban areas in Kenya. A total of 100 peer educators will be trained to raise HIV/AIDS awareness, reduce stigma and create demand for VCT services among people with disabilities. It is expected that over 1000 PWDs will be reached with prevention messages and will access VCT services. " $150,000 in plus-up funds will be utilized to scale up a highly successful outreach program focusing on services for street children, operated by WEMA Center in Mombasa. Currently, the Bamburi Centre caters for 126 resident ex-street girls, over 600 street children registered at Wema Street and Community Outreach project in Kizingo and 260 orphaned and vulnerable children (male and female OVC's) from poor communities/slums neighbouring the Centre in Bamburi. Services provided include provision of shelter for the ex-street girls, parental care, food, clothing, medical care, educational support, vocational training, spiritual guidance and counseling and family re-unification. There could be over 4,000 street children in Mombasa Island, and well over 20,000 in Mombasa district.Street children lifestyles are characterized by continued marginalization from basic services and support such as lack of food, proper shelter, education, health-care, parental care and guidance. These children and the street youth suffer from a multiplicity of socio-economic gaps/problems that inevitably lead to desperation and anti-social behavior.They constantly encounter sexual abuse and molestation, drug addiction and abuse as the most prevalent problems. These problems are mainly caused by widespread poverty both in rural and urban areas (slum communities), domestic violence, retrogressive socio-cultural beliefs & practices and the far reaching negative impact created by the HIV/AIDS on poor families.Young girls are particularly sexually vulnerable while boys are more likely to go into crime and drug abuse.The program will expand services in Mombasa to Nairobi and Kisumu and will reach 2000 street children with support and rehabilitation services.
1. LIST OF RELATED ACTIVITIES This activity also relates to activities in Abstinence and Be Faithful Programs (#6832) and Counseling and Testing (#6829).
2. ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION There is an estimated population of 2.7 million disabled people in Kenya who are at high risk of HIV/AIDS infection. Widespread stigma toward mental disabilities has resulted in a hidden population which leaves them open to severe and unreported sexual abuse. It is imperative that information is packaged appropriately for the different disability groups to inform them of ways to protect themselves and identify where they can seek support. This activity has three components to reach this vulnerable population.
The first component is an ongoing community outreach program that will tailor prevention activities to increase access to HIV/AIDS information and education. In 2006, AED/CAP supported eight organizations to begin the process of translating existing HIV/AIDS information (including materials produced by the Ministry of Health) into formats such as Braille, large print, sign language etc. In 2007, this process will continue, and there will be an emphasis on behavior change among youth with disabilities. Handicap International (HI) is working with the United Disabled Persons of Kenya, in the Ministry of Culture and Social Services, in the area of advocacy and policy development. In addition, AED will continue to provide funding to HI to work with eight local NGOs and CBOs targeting 13,000 physically and mentally disabled people with OP activities.
In the second component, AED will develop a series of training programs. A special education program will be developed on safe motherhood, sexuality and reproductive health with understandable information tailored to the intellectual needs of women with mental disabilities. Health workers will be trained to deliver this program and better prepare them to provide services to the physically and mentally disabled. Training will also target government workers such as teachers and public health care workers. Peer educators (disabled youth themselves) will be trained in HIV/AIDS issues. The peer educators will be expected to assist by building self-esteem through enabling disabled people to understand their rights and measures to protect themselves from abuse or unsafe sex and other risky behaviors that could predispose them to HIV/AIDS. 500 individuals will be trained to promote HIV/AIDS prevention targeting this population.
In the third component, interventions will be developed for blind and low vision persons and the deaf to reduce risk through increased access to HIV/AIDS prevention services for high-risk and underserved populations. These activities will contribute to the result of increased awareness of HIV preventive behaviors and provide targeted condom promotion at eight condom service outlets.
3. CONTRIBUTIONS TO OVERALL PROGRAM AREA In 2007 Handicap International proposes to reach 13,000 individuals through community outreach that promotes HIV/AIDS prevention through other behavior change beyond abstinence and/or being faithful, 500 individuals will be trained to promote HIV/AIDS prevention and 8 condom service outlets will be targeted.
4. LINKS TO OTHER ACTIVITIES This activity will be linked to AB (#6832) and CT (#6829).
5. POPULATIONS BEING TARGETED The main target population is Special Populations including: 1) persons with different types of disabilities (hearing, seeing, mentally and the physically disabled) and 2) out-of-school youth. In the general population, parents and guardians will also be involved especially to support the mentally challenged to access HIV services. Training will include host country government workers such as teachers and public health care workers. Groups/Organizations include CBOs and NGOs.
6. KEY LEGISLATIVE ISSUES ADDRESSED The project will address issues of Stigma reduction and Discrimination, as it has been the major factor hindering access to HIV services by PWDs. It will work to promote the rights of disabled people for equal access to HIV/AIDS related prevention and intervention measures and to influence government policies to include needs of PWDs. Gender equity is
also key to this project, as within the disability fraternity issues of women with disabilities have not been well articulated and would therefore be taken into consideration in all activities.
7. EMPHASIS AREAS The major area of emphasis is training. It will include host country government workers such as teachers and public health care workers to prepare them to provide services to the physically and mentally disabled. An area of lesser emphasis is information, education and communication to develop a special education program on safe motherhood, sexuality and reproductive health with understandable information tailored to the intellectual needs of women with mental disabilities. Implementation will entail local organization capacity development, and this will facilitate development of network/linkages/referral systems.
1. LIST OF RELATED ACTIVITIES This relates to Capable Partners activities in Other Prevention (#6830), OVC (#6831), AB (#6832) and CT (6829).
2. ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION Capable Partners will support two agencies in Basic Health Care and Support. First, Handicap International will continue to support the Kitale AIDS Program, building on an effective existing program to provide a basic package of treatment services, including diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections. The program will continue to develop referral linkages to programs providing antiretroviral treatment primarily at 4 rural AIDS clinics. The nutrition demonstration project based at Kiminini Cottage hospital will be scaled up and linked to a home-based care project. These activities will contribute to the provision of a basic package of services to people with HIV/AIDS, strengthened integration of prevention and treatment services, and strengthening of networks for HIV care services. HI was originally going to train health workers in Kitale District Hospital in the management of AIDS but in 2006 AMPATH has taken over this role. HI is therefore focusing on strengthening the capacity of health workers in rural clinics providing ARVs (through AMPATH).Second, Nazareth Hospital will increase community-based support services to the PLWHAs already enlisted for support through the ART program and their families. Family-based caregivers drawn from the client's households will be trained and equipped with information on home-based care, end-of-life care and support, and responding to the needs of the patients. There are currently 100 children on ARVs, 60 of whom are orphans. In FY 2007 Nazareth will develop a program for more comprehensive community based care for these children. The nutrition support program will also be scaled up from the existing 150 patients to 350.
3. CONTRIBUTIONS TO OVERALL PROGRAM AREA In FY 2007 Handicap International proposes to train: 25 health workers in 4 rural AIDS clinics in the management of treatment for HIV/AIDS, 75 health facility staff will undergo HIV/AIDS sensitization and 25 health workers on ART adherence procedures. Counseling will be provided to 2,500 individuals with HIV. Nazareth will help a total of 200 PLWHA to form support groups and provide opportunities for its patients on ART to reintegrate into the community. Nazareth Hospital will establish and equip 5 new PLWHA support groups and continue supporting 5 existing support groups in the community for income generating activities. 400 people with HIV/AIDS will receive basic community-based support, including multivitamins, and those who are malnourished will receive nutritional supplementation. In FY 2006 Nazareth increased the number of people living with HIV/AIDS on ART from 350 to more than 700. In FY 2007 over 2,000 PLWHAs will be receiving ART. In FY 2007, the 250 households with PLWHAs will be targeted in the provision of skills for care, support and psychosocial support of the PLWHA.
4. LINKS TO OTHER ACTIVITIES This activity will link with Indiana University's program with Kitale District Hospital in PMCT (#6898).
5. POPULATIONS BEING TARGETED The populations being targeted include Caregivers (of PLWHA and OVC) including public health workers, Orphans and Vulnerable Children and People living with HIV/AIDS. People Living with Disabilities are also a primary target.
6. KEY LEGISLATIVE ISSUES ADDRESSED The key legislative issue addressed will be stigma and discrimination through the mainstreaming of disability into HIV/AIDS policy papers in the country. At the moment little is being done to provide access to this category of people to services on HIV/AIDS, reproductive health and sexuality. Gender will also be addressed due to a rise in gender-based violence of which almost 90% are sexual in nature. Service providers will be on the look-out for victims of such violence and appropriate services will be offered to them promptly to avoid complications that may arise. In all the activities of the project equity will also be a key focus. Female youth, women in general and PWDs will be provided with more access to services and attention will also be given to them in order to bridge the gap between them and the other members of the society on matters related to the project objectives. The aim of this will be to provide these ‘more at risk' segments of the population with adequate information for prevention purpose and also care and
support as access may have been compromised because of their condition. A final legislative area is a Wrap Around for Microfinance/Microcredit due to the establishment and equipping of 10 PLWHA support groups in the community for income generating activities.
7. EMPHASIS AREAS The major area of emphasis is Local Organization Capacity Development with minor emphasis areas in Development of Network/Linkages/Referral Systems due to the linking of ART with community and development initiatives. Other minor emphasis in Linkages With Other Sectors and Initiatives (through prevention-based activities like VCT, Behavior Change Communication and community education), Community Mobilization/Participation and training.
1. LIST OF RELATED ACTIVITIES This relates to Capable Partners activities in Other Prevention (#6830), Palliative Care (#6827), AB (#6832) and CT (#6829).
2. ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION USAID placed support to organizations under an umbrella grant mechanism, the Capable Partners Program (CAP) implemented by the Academy for Educational Development (AED). The Capable Partners Program is designed to strengthen the organizational capacity and sustainability of NGOs, NGO networks, intermediate support organizations (ISOs) and coalitions. In Kenya, the Capable Partners Program strengthens the organizational and technical capacity of organizations working at the community level with HIV/AIDS-affected orphans and vulnerable children, organizations working more broadly to address HIV/AIDS in Kenya and NGOs in other sectors that plan to introduce an HIV/AIDS component into their work. The program manages grant funds to organizations that have been selected through competitive processes. AED's experience in grants management has shown that a grant program is most effective when technical and institutional capacity building are incorporated in the grant-making process.
With FY 2006 PEPFAR funds, the Capable Partners Program will be supporting between 35 and 40 partners delivering services to OVC. In FY 2007 the Capable Partners Program will continue to support the same number of partners. Having worked with many of these organizations for a number of years, the focus in FY 2007 will be to scale up their activities to reach more OVC with quality services. It is anticipated that most organizations will have developed the capacity to manage larger grants.
All activities are planned within the scope of the national program guidelines on OVCs with a focus on the programming principles and strategies in the priority areas of intervention. In particular, the government's OVC guidelines will be followed, as well as all other pertinent guidelines issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs and the National AIDS Control Council.
This activity includes support to the following sub-recipients for activities integral to the program:
-Africa Focus NGO -Beacon of Hope -Church World Services -Kolanya Girls' Boarding Primary School -Makindu Children's Centre -Mothers' Rural Care for AIDS Orphans (MORCAO) -Neighbors in Action -Ripples International -St. Camillus Dala Kiye Children Welfare Home -Tropical Institute of Community Health and Development -CREADIS -RAPADO -SFIC -Child Welfare Society of Kenya -Twana Twitu -Wema Center -KENWA -New grants (20)
3. CONTRIBUTIONS TO OVERALL PROGRAM AREA Activities that will be implemented under the Capable Partners Program will continue to support the National Plan of Action for Orphans and Vulnerable Children. In FY 2007 CAP will work with each partner to expand their coverage and reach at least 25% more OVC. CAP will assist all partners in the design and delivery of quality programs consistent with national policies and initiatives for orphans and vulnerable children. Through its partners, CAP will reach 26,500 OVC with care and support, and will train 6,625 providers and caretakers of OVC.
4. LINKS TO OTHER ACTIVITIES
CAP has developed an excellent working relationship with the Department of Children's Services in the Office of the Vice President and Ministry of Home Affairs. This will enable CAP to create linkages between sub-recipients and children's officers in the districts in which projects are being implemented. At the community level, organizations will be assisted to create and sustain linkages with other appropriate USG-funded programs. These are programs that have interventions aimed at: strengthening community mechanisms to cope with the impact of HIV/AIDS, prolonging the lives of and providing care and support to PLWHAs, and linking with other programs providing and promoting Palliative Care: Basic Health Care and Support (#6827), Abstinence and Be Faithful (#6832), Counseling and Testing (#6829) and Other Prevention (#6830). This activity is linked to APHIA II's HBHC activity (#5285) for home based care services, CT activity (#4190) for counseling and testing and ARV Services (#5367) for treatment.
5. POPULATIONS BEING TARGETED This activity primarily targets orphans and vulnerable children, adolescents, particularly girls, as well as young adults, caregivers and community-based and Faith-based organizations as well as NGOs.
6. KEY LEGISLATIVE ISSUES ADDRESSED None
7. EMPHASIS AREAS The major emphasis is Local Organization Capacity Development and the minor emphases are training, and development of network/linkages/referral systems
1. LIST OF RELATED ACTIVITIES This activity relates to AED/Capable Partners activities in AB (#6832), OP (#6830), and OVC (#6831).
2. ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION Handicap International began operations in Kenya in 1992 and currently has 4 location offices: Nairobi (Country office), Garissa, Kitale and Kakuma. The organization has developed two integrated HIV/AIDS projects. In Kitale, Trans Nzoia district, the project includes prevention in the communities, churches and schools, Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT), reinforcement of the care network through government and faith-based partners, and support of people living with the virus and their families using home based care, support groups and micro-credit. The Capable Partners program is currently funding the youth-friendly VCT and Reproductive Health center called Chanuka, which means ‘get smart'. Chanuka serves as a model VCT for reaching youth at risk and initiating behavior change. In FY 2007 the program will continue to use behavior change communication as a key strategy to sensitize the youth on the dangers of HIV/AIDS and promote positive behavior in the context of HIV. The project aims to increase the level of intervention by targeting both the youth in-school and the youth out-of-school. Mobilization exercises will target the churches, schools, and tertiary institutions and youth groups and train additional youth groups in each of the eight administrative divisions in Kitale district. The project will continue encouraging the youth and other community members to go for HIV testing at the existing VCT sites in the district. In order to reach communities and especially the youth in the remote areas of the district who are unable to access fixed VCT centers, Handicap International will continue to provide a mobile VCT service in Kitale district as well as West Pokot. A full mobile team comprising of trained VCT counselors will be deployed for this purpose. To ensure quality, counselors will continue attending monthly supervision meetings organized by the District AIDS and STI Coordination Office (DASCO) and according to the requirements of NASCOP. Staff members will continue to attend external Quality Assurance workshops in Nairobi as facilitated by Liverpool VCT and Care. In addition, 16 young people will be trained as VCT counselors. The Chanuka Youth Centre will continue providing quality VCT service to youths with special emphasis on the female youths. In FY 2006 Chanuka moved to new premises and in FY 2007 at least 270 youth will receive counseling and testing. Through another AED CAP Kenya project Chanuka will make services accessible to youth with disability by bringing in specialists to provide appropriate counselors for different disabled groups. Post-Test Clubs and Peer Educators Clubs will be established in West Pokot. Chanuka will continue to produce and disseminate youth focused IEC materials for the out-of-school population and an interactive magazine for the school-based populations. The activity will reach 6,000 individuals for counseling and testing (2500 Chanuka, 3500 mobile VCT), will train 16 individuals in CT, and will fund CT services in one static site and five mobile sites.
3. CONTRIBUTION TO OVERALL PROGRAM AREA This activity will contribute to the FY 2007 targets of number of individuals counseled and tested and trained. Handicap International will contribute to the overall program area with six service outlets that provide counseling and testing, 6,000 individuals will receive counseling and testing and 16 individuals will be trained to provide VCT.
4. LINKS TO OTHER ACTIVITIES This activity is linked to: AED-Capable Partners AB activity (#6837); AED-Capable Partners OP activity (#6830); and AED-Capable Partners OVC activity (#6831). This activity will also be linked to treatment, care and support activities in the regions of operation.
5. POPULATIONS BEING TARGETED The main target population is Special Populations including 1) persons with different types of disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally and the physically disabled) and 2) out-of-school youth. In the general population parents and guardians will also be involved especially for the mentally challenged to support in providing information and helping them access HIV services. Training will include public health workers in Sign Language for VCT. Groups/Organizations include CBOs and NGOs.
6. KEY LEGISLATIVE ISSUES ADDRESSED The project will address issues of stigma reduction and discrimination, as it has been the major factor hindering access to HIV services by PWDs. It will work to promote the rights
of disabled people for equal access to HIV/AIDS related prevention and intervention measures and to influence the Government policies to be inclusive of needs of PWDs. Gender equity is also key in this project, as within the disability fraternity issues of women with disabilities have not been well articulated and would therefore be put into consideration in all activities. The Chanuka Youth Centre will continue providing quality VCT service to youths with special emphasis on the female youths.
7. AREAS OF EMPHASIS A major area of emphasis is Training, including youth reproductive health and sexuality training and the training of youth VCT counselors and training religious leaders as agents of change in HIV/AIDS context. Three youth groups will also be trained in each of the eight administrative divisions in Kitale district. Miinor area of emphasis will be in community mobilization/participation and the develpment of network/linkages/referral systems.
1. LIST OF RELATED ACTIVITIES This activity is linked to Capable Partners' work in the areas of Abstinence and Be Faithful (#6832), Other Prevention (#6830), and Counseling and Testing (#6829). This activity also relates to other private public partnerships in HVAB (#7052), HBHC (#8755), and HTXS (#8765).
2. ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION In FY 2007, the Capable Partners Program (CAP) implemented by the Academy for Educational Development will continue its work with sub-partner ACE Communications to implement a Discordant Couples Communication Project in two districts of Kenya; support a new activity in public private partnerships with the Kenya HIV/AIDS Private Sector Business Council; and identify at least one organization to carry out an HIV/AIDS stigma reduction advocacy program among NGO networks and civil society groups. Through its grant making program, CAP will also develop the technical capacities of 40 organizations to deliver better HIV/AIDS services.
ACE Communications: In 1997, research in Kisumu showed that nearly 40% of couples were in a sexual relationship in which one partner was HIV positive while the other remained negative. Subsequent research revealed a trend of discordant couples among 10-20% of couples. This project by ACE Communications is designed to highlight significant aspects of this phenomenon: a) Survival of one spouse translates into better prospects for the family unit, especially where children are involved, since one spouse survives to take care of the children; b) The possibility of discordance spells hope for many couples and is an incentive to seek VCT services; c) Even where one partner (or both partners) is HIV positive, earlier diagnosis results in lower morbidity and reduced mortality due to HIV/AIDS; d) When couples are encouraged to seek VCT services and receive counseling singly or jointly, it results in better coping and tolerance and helps to address stigma; and e) The existence of the discordant couples phenomenon has captured the attention of target communities in positive ways, especially because the phenomenon offers a message of hope.
It is an empowering message as audiences seek to exploit a window of opportunity: testing positive for HIV is not a death sentence, and early diagnosis results in better management of the condition, including accessing ART. The important elements of the project are incorporated into a campaign using a mix of media including radio, docu-drama video, calendars, billboards, pamphlets, community social events, and educational seminars for community leaders. FY 2005 and 2006 funds enabled ACE to continue to intensify the campaign in Bondo and Rachuonyo district and to develop sustained linkages with VCT and couples counseling services. Communication programs through the local Luo language, however, have a reach beyond Bondo district and will benefit 8 other districts of Nyanza and that of diaspora communities in Nairobi and Nakuru. In FY 2007, the program will be expanded to Migori district. At the same time work will continue to develop linkages with government and other partners to ensure that quality VCT, couples counseling and other follow-up services are available in these districts.
Kenya HIV/AIDS Private Sector Business Council: In Kenya, many large corporations have already developed and adopted HIV/AIDS workplace programs and policies. However, the same cannot be said of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) partly due to limited resources and partly because they do not have the technical and institutional capacity to do so. SMEs broadly include all enterprises engaged primarily in income generating activities with less than 200 employees, and account for approximately 18% of Kenya's Gross Domestic Product employing an estimated 5.1 million people. They are also considered to be the seedbed for entrepreneurship development and technology transfer in Kenya.
Through CAP, the Kenya HIV/AIDS Private Sector Business Council will assist SMEs to close this gap through: 1) provision of technical assistance for HIV/AIDS-related workplace programs and policy development; 2) training targeted individuals as workplace HIV focal points for HIV-related policy development and training peer educators and counselors to be agents of change in prevention, stigma and discrimination reduction; 3) training employees of targeted companies and equipping them with information and prevention messages to promote behavior change and adoption of VCT as an entry point to care and
treatment, and equipping them with the skills for community mobilization for prevention; and 4) production and distribution of relevant training and institutional capacity building materials in HIV-related prevention, care and treatment.
The target companies will be those in key sectors of the economy that have direct bearing in poverty eradication, gender empowerment, rural based and across a broad range of economic activities. In particular, the flower farms surrounding Lake Naivasha, as well as other horticultural industries, will be targeted. Enterprises with both casual workers and full time employees, and those involved in agricultural related activities and employing more female workers, will also receive support.
AIDS stigma reduction: In anticipation of the new HIV/AIDS Bill, CAP will identify organization(s) to conduct activities to raise awareness among the general public and with stakeholders about the provisions of the new legislation, and will work with NGO networks and other civil society groups to ensure the implementation of the Bill.
3. CONTRIBUTIONS TO OVERALL PROGRAM AREA Capable Partners' activities contribute to this program area focus on equipping critical groups with the tools to improve the policy environment. It also supports system strengthening through promoting self-knowledge of one's HIV status, offering affected and infected individuals an opportunity to utilize and improve upon existing systems for testing and counseling. Their activities also address a critical gap in HIV/AIDS awareness and stigma and discrimination reduction among Kenya's casual labor population.
4. LINKS TO OTHER ACTIVITIES This activity is linked to Capable Partners' work in the areas of Abstinence and Be Faithful (#6832), Other Prevention (#6830), and Counseling and Testing (#6829). This activity also relates to other private public partnerships in HVAB (#7052), HBHC (#8755), and HTXS (#8765), by reaching the private sector needs for a systematic approach to HIV/AIDS awareness training and stigma reduction.
5. POPULATIONS BEING TARGETED The activity targets policy makers, people living with HIV/AIDS, non-governmental organizations, and community organizations. Target populations also include the business community/private sector and professional associations.
6. KEY LEGISLATIVE ISSUES ADDRESSED The key legislative issues addressed through this activity are stigma and discrimination and gender equity through AIDS programming.
7. EMPHASIS AREAS The major emphasis area for this activity is community mobilization/participation with a minor emphasis on policy and guidelines, training, and information, education and communication.