PEPFAR's annual planning process is done either at the country (COP) or regional level (ROP).
PEPFAR's programs are implemented through implementing partners who apply for funding based on PEPFAR's published Requests for Applications.
Since 2010, PEPFAR COPs have grouped implementing partners according to an organizational type. We have retroactively applied these classifications to earlier years in the database as well.
Also called "Strategic Areas", these are general areas of HIV programming. Each program area has several corresponding budget codes.
Specific areas of HIV programming. Budget Codes are the lowest level of spending data available.
Expenditure Program Areas track general areas of PEPFAR expenditure.
Subdivisions of Program Areas, these track general higher level sub-classifications of expenditure.
Subdivisions of Major categories, these are the most detailed expenditure data.
Cross-cutting attributions are areas of PEPFAR programming that contribute across several program areas. They contain limited indicative information related to aspects such as human resources, health infrastructure, or key populations programming. However, they represent only a small proportion of the total funds that PEPFAR allocates through the COP process. Additionally, they have changed significantly over the years. As such, analysis and interpretation of these data should be approached carefully. Learn more
PEPFAR sets targets using the Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting (MER) System - documentation for which can be found on PEPFAR's website at https://www.pepfar.gov/reports/guidance/. As with most data on this website, the targets here have been extracted from the COP documents. Targets are for the fiscal year following each COP year, such that selecting 2016 will access targets for FY2017. This feature is currently experimental and should be used for exploratory purposes only at present.
Years of mechanism: 2008
Cervical cancer is a major public health problem for women in Guyana, where the incidence and mortality
rates are 60% higher than the average rates for the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. While
cervical cancer prevention initiatives exist in Guyana, the country currently lacks an organized cervical
cancer prevention program. Cervical cancer prevention services in Guyana are characterized by low
coverage rates, poorly targeted services, lack of coordination and linkage of screening and treatment
components, and inadequate tracking of patients for follow-up. In countries that have developed and
implemented high quality organized cervical cancer prevention programs with high participation rates, the
incidence of cervical cancer has decreased by 70-90%.
The situation of HIV/AIDS in Guyana, and its influence on the development of cervical cancer, poses
significant risks for women's health, as well as the well-being of their families and communities. HIV-
infected women are at greater risk of developing precancerous lesions of the cervix, and have more rapid
progression to cancer than women who are not HIV-infected. It is within this context that cervical cancer
can be considered an opportunistic disease. In addition, women receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy
(ART) are living longer, increasing the risk that precancerous lesions of the cervix progress to cancer. HIV-
infected women should therefore receive cervical cancer prevention services as part of their comprehensive
HIV care and treatment.
In response to these issues, the Government of Guyana (GoG), through its Ministry of Health (MoH), has
prioritized cervical cancer prevention as a programmatic issue to be addressed using a single-visit approach
(SVA) with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy. SVA is a recognized alternative for low
resource settings to the cytology-based model of cervical cancer prevention services. In contrast to the
cytology-based program where results are available a few weeks later and the client is referred to a central
site for confirmatory tests and therapy, the SVA model links testing with the offer of treatment or other
management options during the same visit. This linkage is not only clinically important; it is cost-effective, as
reported in two recent studies (New England Journal of Medicine, November 17; Journal of the National
Cancer Institute; 94:1-15). Both studies report that once-in-a lifetime VIA testing, followed by offer of
immediate cryotherapy treatment for eligible lesions, was the most cost-effective approach, defined as
fewest dollars spent per life-year saved or cancers avoided. In addition, Omni Med's collaborative efforts in
Guyana over the past four years have recently led to a national policy for cervical cancer prevention based
on the VIA and SVA model, and the desire of the MoH to have Omni Med partner with them to provide
technical assistance for the program. The GoG has also committed its own resources to pay the in-country
costs of implementing a national cervical cancer prevention program.
Importantly, through this program, the GoG intends to lay the groundwork for introducing HPV testing and
the HPV vaccine, when, and if, these activities become feasible and appropriate in this setting. The SVA
combined with appropriate use of HPV testing and the HPV vaccine is an effective national strategy for
detection; control; treatment, care and management; and prevention of an important public health problem
that accounts for significant disease and death among Guyanese women. This will be achieved by using the
screening program as a platform to reach young women with the vaccine when it becomes available and
affordable. While this combined initiative may be many years before becoming a reality in Guyana, an initial
effort to establish the screening program (the platform for launching HPV vaccine services) is a requisite
first step to provide prevention services to women.
Progress on FY 08 Activities & Targets
Working in partnership with the GoG, Jhpiego and Omni Med are collaborating to provide the needed
technical assistance for this program. During FY08, the project will have conducted the following activities
upon which the FY09 activities will be built:
?conduct a needs assessment to provide specific recommendations to refine program implementation,
policy development and service delivery guidelines;
?conduct an information system (IS) assessment to determine existing IS needs for data collection and
monitoring, pilot data collection system (electronic or paper-based) and conduct follow up
?establish a technical advisory group for cervical cancer;
?conduct stakeholder meetings to ensure broad-based support for cervical cancer prevention;
?support development of cervical cancer service delivery and training guidelines;
?conduct training of supervisors and health care providers from selected care and treatment (C&T) sites;
?conduct follow up and supervisory visits of trained supervisors and health care providers at C&T sites;
?provide limited cervical cancer screening and treatment equipment and supplies needed to start up
services at selected C&T sites; and
?conduct an end-of-project year assessment to determine progress of project and inform Project Year 2
During FY 09, the project will support expansion from 4 HIV C&T sites providing cervical cancer prevention
services to 6 additional sites. Activities will include:
?In collaboration with the MOH, support development of a national policy for cervical cancer treatment as
part of the overall policy on cervical cancer, as well as treatment guidelines for cervical cancer.
?Support coordination and facilitation (as needed) of the technical advisory group for cervical cancer
?Conduct a training of trainers (TOT) workshop with supervisors and health care providers previously
trained in VIA and cryotherapy during Project Year 1.
?Conduct two training workshops for a new group of supervisors and health care providers to support
program expansion. These participants will be trained by the new trainers (mentioned in previous bullet) as
part of their practicum to become certified trainers.
?Conduct a workshop on supportive supervision for selected trainers, supervisors and proficient health care
providers to ensure supervisors provide effective supervision and providers receive adequate support and
?Provide a refresher workshop to providers at the referral site, Georgetown Public Hospital, to manage
patients referred from C&T sites for advanced pre-cancerous lesions.
Activity Narrative: ?Support community education and awareness of cervical cancer and available services in collaboration
with mechanisms that are already in place to reach women in the targeted group, including
developing/adapting educational materials.
?Support ongoing data collection and analysis of data, including streamlining data capture and reporting to
include advanced cervical pre-cancer and cancer lesions and treatment received.
In addition, currently the Georgetown Public Hospital sees all patients referred from the C&T sites for
treatment of advanced pre-cancerous lesions using the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP).
LEEP is a commonly used approach to treat high grade cervical dysplasia and has many advantages,
including relative low cost, high success rate, and a relatively short learning time for specific physicians.
During FY 09, the project will support 1-2 C&T sites that already provide VIA to provide LEEP onsite,
including training providers on LEEP and provision of LEEP machines.
New/Continuing Activity: Continuing Activity
Continuing Activity: 15464
Continued Associated Activity Information
Activity Activity ID USG Agency Prime Partner Mechanism Mechanism ID Mechanism Planned Funds
System ID System ID
15464 15464.08 U.S. Agency for JHPIEGO 7145 7145.08 JHPIEGO $315,000
Human Capacity Development
Estimated amount of funding that is planned for Human Capacity Development $160,000
Public Health Evaluation
Food and Nutrition: Policy, Tools, and Service Delivery
Food and Nutrition: Commodities