PEPFAR's annual planning process is done either at the country (COP) or regional level (ROP).
PEPFAR's programs are implemented through implementing partners who apply for funding based on PEPFAR's published Requests for Applications.
Since 2010, PEPFAR COPs have grouped implementing partners according to an organizational type. We have retroactively applied these classifications to earlier years in the database as well.
Also called "Strategic Areas", these are general areas of HIV programming. Each program area has several corresponding budget codes.
Specific areas of HIV programming. Budget Codes are the lowest level of spending data available.
Expenditure Program Areas track general areas of PEPFAR expenditure.
Subdivisions of Program Areas, these track general higher level sub-classifications of expenditure.
Subdivisions of Major categories, these are the most detailed expenditure data.
Cross-cutting attributions are areas of PEPFAR programming that contribute across several program areas. They contain limited indicative information related to aspects such as human resources, health infrastructure, or key populations programming. However, they represent only a small proportion of the total funds that PEPFAR allocates through the COP process. Additionally, they have changed significantly over the years. As such, analysis and interpretation of these data should be approached carefully. Learn more
PEPFAR sets targets using the Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting (MER) System - documentation for which can be found on PEPFAR's website at https://www.pepfar.gov/reports/guidance/. As with most data on this website, the targets here have been extracted from the COP documents. Targets are for the fiscal year following each COP year, such that selecting 2016 will access targets for FY2017. This feature is currently experimental and should be used for exploratory purposes only at present.
Years of mechanism: 2008
08.P0401 John Snow - Technical assistance on Injection Safety
With USG support, JSI and its subcontractors, PATH and AED are supporting the MOH to strengthen the
existing injection safety systems and promote the safety of healthcare workers, patients, and the
community. The Making Medical Injections Safer (MMIS) program is currently working in four districts and
the BDF Health Corps. MMIS and its partners plan to scale up interventions (except for distribution of
retractable syringes) to ten additional health districts in FY2008.
The primary focus for the procurement and distribution of injection devices (retractable syringes) has been
ensuring adequate and continuous availability of retractable syringes for Kgatleng and Lobatse districts
where MOH and MMIS are piloting the use of retractable syringe technology to reduce exposure to needle-
stick injuries. Results drawn from this pilot will be used by the MOH to make an informed decision whether
retractable syringes should be procured for the administration of injections in Botswana.
From FY2005 to June 30, 2007, 4,082 healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, student nurses,
laboratory and dental staff, pharmaceutical staff, lay counselors, environmental health staff, industrial class
workers and ambulance drivers had been trained in infection prevention and control and injection safety
(IPC/IS). Senior district health managers from the current districts received regional capacity building
training in infection prevention, healthcare waste management, logistics, and behavior change. Training
extended to diabetic patients who self administer injection at home.
According to the mid-term review of the injection safety project in March 2007, preliminary results indicate
that prevalence of injuries and use of unnecessary injections have been reduced by half, and management
of healthcare waste are improving.
During FY2007, MMIS focused on establishing logistics management information system tools in Gaborone,
Kanye/Moshupa and BDF at service delivery points to promote appropriate management of injection
equipment. MMIS supported MOH (CMS, the Botswana Essential Drug Action Program, and the Drug
Management Unit in revising the 2000 Botswana Drug Management Guidelines.
MMIS supports the GOB (MOH, Ministry of Local Government, and Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and
Tourism) to enforce its 1996 Code of Practice for Clinical Waste Management/Healthcare Waste
Management. The Code is the Government of Botswana's implementation document that provides
standards and procedures of managing clinical waste at facility as well as central level.
The country-wide review of the injection safety policy that drew healthcare workers from all districts was
concluded during the first quarter of FY2007. The policy is being put in recommended government format
and will be presented to MOH for approval before the end of FY07. The policy articulates and advocates for
institutional administrative procedures and IPC/IS guidelines to improve healthcare worker safety.
Approximately 260,000 people have been reached with injection safety messages. As a strategy of scaling-
up injection safety interventions, a multi-year advocacy and BCC strategy for injection safety has been
developed. It is anticipated that 700,000 people will be reached by the end of FY2008.
MMIS will assess the effectiveness of retractable syringe use and conduct a follow-up assessment in health
facilities of the pilot districts to gather information on the effectiveness of the intervention. A baseline
assessment in the districts identified for expansion and scale up of program activities is also planned.
Supervision visits will be conducted on a quarterly basis with results reported to HHS/CDC/BOTUSA, MOH
The project will explore areas of collaboration and develop synergies with other projects. Possible areas
being explore with the NBTS and SBFA is infection prevention and safety training. JSI will also explore
areas of linkages with Supply Chain Management Systems (SCMS) implemented by Crown Agents Inc in
areas of procurement of injection safety related commodities in Botswana.